Types of Stone Masonry used in Construction: Rubble & Ashlar Masonry

types of stone masonry

Are you still wondering how to add a different kind of vibe and elegance to your home? 

Sometimes, you might want to change a home environment by adding furniture, painting, or renovating buildings. Not only does it feel boring to see the same old things around yourself, but also it gets monotonous and frustrating. Well, the use of the right stone masonry service might be the right option if you want to renovate your home.

Stonemasonry can be used when you want to add some of that sparkle to the dull surroundings of your home. It brings a significant change in your daily life, which will transform your old self into a great new one with a massive difference within.

So, what does stone masonry means?

Stonemasonry can be explained as forming stone arts, buildings, and sculptures using stones and marbles. All-natural stones are used with a particular modification and transformed into various shapes to bring that perfect outcome in stone masonry. 

Stonemasonry uses stone as its primary building factor.

Types of Stonemasonry

Generally, stonemasonry includes two different types: Rubble Masonry and Ashlar Masonry. Here, in this article, we'll dive deep into the kinds of a stonemason and what it is used for.

Rubble Masonry 

Rubble masonry deals with the use of rough stones essential for wall works. It is often used as the infilling between the dresses' wall faces. Rubble masonry is also known as Rubblework which has almost a vast zone since the stones used in it are all irregular in size.

There are four types of Rubble Masonry: the  Miscellaneous type rubble, Random Rubble, Square rubble, and Dry Rubble Masonry. Each of them has its subtypes and characteristics, which are listed below. 

i) Miscellaneous Type Rubble

Miscellaneous Type rubble is rubble masonry that uses rough and closed picked stones. It is divided into two different subtypes.

Flint Rubble Masonry 

The "cobbles and flints "  are the main components of flint rubble masonry. It is a silica stone with almost 50 to 300 mm and 80 to 150 mm in thickness. The stones used in the flint rubble masonry look hard but break easily. Arrangement of such stones can be layered or nonlayered.

Polygonal Rubble Masonry

Polygonal Rubble masonry is the type of masonry in which hammer-dresses the stones. The stones used in it have irregular shapes and sizes of polygons used on the surface, so the surface joints appear to move in all directions irregularly.

ii) Random Rubble Masonry 

Random rubble masonry involves the arrangement of stone in irregular shapes and sizes to give it a pretty aesthetic look. It is called the second class of random masonry if the joint is 12 mm thick and made up of a hammer.

There are two of the subtypes of Random Rubble Masonry.

Uncoursed random rubble masonry 

It is one of the cheapest and the roughest forms of stonewalling. In the uncoursed stone masonry, the stones are arranged to distribute the pressure over maximum area and avoid the vertical joints. The masonry work doesn't work in layers, and the heights are equalized into every 40 cm to 50 cm.

It is a type of stone masonry used in the construction of warehouses, compound buildings, etc.

Built to course random rubble masonry 

Built to the course is a random rubble masonry similar to the uncoursed one but the work is roughly leveled up to form the courses from 30 to 45 cm thick.

iii) Square Rubble Masonry 

Square rubble masonry is the type of masonry in which the stones in the facet joints are all shaped in the square shapes before doing any layering in the construction.

There are three different types of square rubble masonry.

Regular Course stone masonry

Regular Course stone masonry is a type of square rubble masonry that usually uses stones having straight sides. The beds leveled up to form the courses of varying depth, but the heights remain the same.

Coursed square rubble masonry

Coursed square rubble masonry is stone masonry that uses chisel-dressed stones laid in courses. It is one of the most special types of stone masonry. It consists of the square-shaped stones on the joints. The stones are all laid into equal layers.

Uncoursed square rubble masonry 

Uncoursed square rubble masonry consists of stones shaped into the square shape of all of the joints and beds by the hammer dressing. In uncoursed square rubble masonry, the hammer-dressed stones are laid without making courses.

iv) Dry Rubble Masonry 

Dry rubble masonry is the rubble stone masonry in which all of the stones are laid well without any use of mortar. It is also pronounced as the "Dry stones." It is a common type of masonry that is only recommended for constructing the walls with a height, not more than 6 mm.

Ashlar Stone Masonry 

Ashlar stone masonry is the other type of stone masonry in which all of the stones are finely dressed to lay on the lime mortar or the cement mortar. It is the most refined form of stone masonry where the rocks are appropriately dressed into suitable shapes and even sizes to create perfectly horizontal and vertical sides.

There are four different types of Ashlar Masonry: the Ashlar quarry faced. Ashlar chamfered, rough tooled, Ashlar facing, and Ashlar block in course masonry

i) Ashlar quarry faced masonry 

Ashlar quarry-faced masonry is the type of stone masonry in which the middle part of the stone's surface is kept the same. Here, the 25 mm wide strip is made with the chisel on all four sides visible outside the stone on the surface. 

ii) Ashlar chamfered 

Ashlar chamfered consists of the stone in which the 25 mm wide strip of its surface is made up with the chisel. It is one of the particular types of stone masonry where the perimeter of its outer face is exposed at an angle of 45° to 25° to a 25 mm depth. The larger than 80 mm projection is removed with the hammer on the outer surface.

iii) Ashlar rough tooled 

Ashlar rough tooled masonry is also known as the bastard ashlar. It consists of a stone bed and the sides that are chisel dressed finely, but the outer surface is roughed with a tool.  The mortar of the joint in this type of stone masonry has a uniform thickness that does not exceed more than 6 mm. 

The remaining portion of the face is the same as the received.

iv) Ashlar facing 

Ashlar facing is the type of stone masonry provided along with the concrete blocks and the bricks to give it a better appearance. The stones are chisel-dressed on both sides, and the ends have a height of not more than 30 cm. It is one of the most costly types of stone masonry and has an excellent aesthetic view in appearance.

All of the Ashlar-facing stone masonry courses have the same heights.

v) Ashlar Block in course masonry 

Ashlar block in course masonry is intermediate between both of the Ashlar and the rubble masonry. It consists of the joints around the thickness, which does not increase more than 60 mm, and the course has a thickness around 20 cm to 30 cm. 

The stone faces are finely hammer-dressed, and it is mainly used in the construction of bridges, railway stations, coastal walls, etc.

So, these are all types of stonemason that you can use for different construction work. If you are searching for the best stone masonry service in Nepal, remember Khojsewa.